Globally Standardized Indicators for Resilient Cities

How are performance measurement standards helping some of the smartest urban leaders build resilient cities? A common set of indicators that are globally standardized within the ISO framework will generate learning across cities globally More informed cities can lead to transformative decision-making; the adoption of strategic technology and innovations; cost-effective solutions for infrastructure investments; and, smarter, healthier futures for citizens. This session will reveal some of the lessons-learned in different cities, drawn from the Global City Indicators Facility 250+ member cities, as they embrace indicators to accelerate the transition.

Transcript

Patricia McCarney

Öability. It’s another subset of sustainable infrastructure. So we published [inaudible 00:25] take on prosperity, this is the second one on aging. We have lots of pretty interesting visualizations on some of the data because this is the big challenge [inaudible 00:37] other cities over the next few years until the [inaudible 0:00:45] when there is this huge demographic transition. So I just want to close with that note that the way we are starting to use the data is by [inaudible 00:53] process.

Senator Art Eggleton

Thank you Patricia McCarney. And now the planning and management perspective comes from Nico Tillie.

Nico Tillie

[inaudible 01:41] try be directed to the [inaudible 01:43] a high quality of life. And these are long-term goals which are not unusual in the city. And of course we wanted to know where we stand as a city…where are we at for different [inaudible]. Of course, we can’t measure it; we can’t manage it [inaudible] So there are many city arrangements around actually and many assessment tools in this area [inaudible 02:08]. Some of these ranges…they just rank you if [inaudible 02:12] and sometimes you participate because you know you are going to [inaudible 02:18] to get the extra money from institutes or whatever. So we wanted to know how can this interact with our folks in the cities? We did a comparison study of all these cities and we took the top three cities in every ranking. There were about 20 city rankings in the area of [inaudible 02:38] and a few Dutch and French tools. And actually what we see is the top three cities score very well; well you can read in on the left actually. It was actually more interesting for us to look at what they didn’t do because what we were looking for was if they ranked as the city and scored a minus on something…how do we change the policy to change it? And so what is missing is there is no [inaudible 03:10] feedback in many of these city rankings and they were rating also the black books so they compared [inaudible 03:18] and health and wellness. And sometimes they decide what weighs more.

A very interesting thing is that the results are always in numbers or percentages. So if you look at area assessment tools…for instance, in this area you have 6 out of 10 but if you add this green then you go to 7. But the question is do we add this set in green to just this part? Do we [inaudible 03:44]? And the special quality we want to improve in our cities. And actually you will see [inaudible 03:56] but for most folks the results actually [inaudible 04:00] because it was not a ranking, so it was not who scores best but we could compare ourselves, and we could learn from other cities online. And that is why we joined it.

So you have to keep in mind that my colleagues [inaudible 04:19] every day to provide the data for today for [inaudible 04:25] the different area. It was just different indicator, so the [inaudible] is really not involved with providing the data to these people. So we [inaudible 04:34] we have to do this different. And sometimes ranking is nice if you do well because you can see who did well. But for instance, the European [inaudible 04:49] yellow for efficiency in the household. And this would be a number, but just an example. This is the data. But in fact the data we had was this. We had data on block level, so a few houses together, one for [inaudible 05:07] on city level. So if you could provide on the city level you throw away enough useful data that you could use in the future. So we actually did this to all indicators [inaudible 05:22] which was the smallest space possible, so that we could flexibly use the data. We could use it [inaudible 05:30] district level, city level, and regional level so it was scalable too. And the interesting thing was the importance of GIS. So instead of Excel sheets, we showed the map and of course the map is easier to read than data spreadsheets. [inaudible 05:49] map GIS indicators. And this was very helpful for us because we get away from numbers into mapping. And the data is always useful in stakeholder processes.

The [inaudible 06:06] that we looked at all these indicators of all these rankings and we started to plan the people indicators which [inaudible 06:14] and we need to somewhat accelerate these processes because they could have some meetings [inaudible 06:2] capability and people are just planning…how do we include these discussions? Give them the guide and follow it and narrow it. And that’s how we came up with this diagram with the indicators but it is not set. [inaudible 06:21] so it is flexible and actually each indicator is a map. So if you take it like this, [inaudible 06:47] on the maps so we did a traffic light system on what indicators do we score well [inaudible 06:54]. For instance, the [inaudible 06:54] found this average of the city and it could possibly be anything, what you choose in your city or whether you want to apply. We can use this in transition processes in the city. We have the GCS resilience profile that maps the average of all the data we collected. And we have government and stakeholders in this project.

So now all the data are open and on the table. The stakeholders can use this data and then there is more trust from the beginning. So of course people focus on the results and what are going to do with that? For instance, one of these results for the stakeholder is the…here for instance, it says [inaudible 07:38] shortages. You see that normally this would be a 6 but you can’t see if that is 9 [inaudible 07:51] and that is 3 for instance. So of course we have more data on smaller pixels. We can sync with that. So some of the solutions would be [inaudible 07:58]. And you can imagine that the solutions [inaudible 08:05] dries, and rains, and it fills up. It’s raining. I think this is [inaudible 08:12] but of course there are hundreds of topics which can show up red. We are looking for best practices in the cities to put out examples of which we don’t know them yet.

Another example is for instance high energy use and low income, two maps on that. And where is this energy parity actually happening? [inaudible 08:39] for instance they combine district into, [inaudible 08:44]. These kinds of things are for them. So let’s skip this for time saving [inaudible 09:02] not just heating, climate adaptation and energy, but it’s also resilience to [inaudible 09:14] about quality of life. So one of our strategies is to map safety, energy supply, where are the hospitals, etc. And this is already going into more resilience indicators which Patricia McCarney was mentioning for this technical report that she still has to develop as we try to approach this. And we eventually [inaudible 09:40] before this process and be involved so that we can also implement some improvements. There [inaudible 09:49] local political goals, and thresholds to be put into the traffic light system because of new indicators. They showed the potential connections and energy potential and mapping the ecosystems and those are all very interesting things to put in. Then of course the main goal is to globalize, to stay healthy and [inaudible 10:05] resilience indicators, so that we can accelerate the [inaudible 10:11] to planning, to actions in the cities.

Thank you.

Senator Art Eggleton

Thank you, [inaudible 10:20]. And next, the political perspective which comes from mayor [inaudible 10:29] comes from city of Vaughan; by the way for those of you who are not familiar with this area, it is the north west boundary of the city of Toronto.

Mayor Maurizio Bevilacqua

We like to think of it as the city of [inaudible 10:41]. Thank you very much. You know, I made the presentation a number of times and so today it enables me to talk about other economic terms in other places…today I want to engage in a conversation about really how these standards can in fact be inspirational to the city. There is a field of study called applied positive psychology. It started back in 1998 at the University of Pennsylvania with [inaudible 10:53]. And he focuses on the character virtues and strengths of good individuals in living healthy and prosperous lives that promotes well-being. So what I have done is I have transposed that on to cities and I think that these standards can in fact become extremely inspirational for a city. And so in my city of Vaughan, when I have compared my city to other cities throughout the world, I focus on the characters, virtues, and strengths of those cities. What are those cities doing well and how do we compare? I think that is extremely important because the population needs to be inspired. The citizens need to know that somewhere, somebody is doing it better than they are, that somebody has a better practice. And so sharing the best practices becomes extremely important.

And as you know, the political reality is that most things happen in countries and communities and neighborhoods when people are inspired. And I think this is perhaps a side of this standard that we have really not spoken too much about. I thought I would put that on the table because as we move forward we need to recognize that politicians throughout the world can in fact use this comparative analysis to inspire the electorates and inspire communities to [inaudible 12:53]. That is fundamental to any society in any city that wants to bring about progress within their boundaries and beyond. And this is the reason you have, for example, a city like ours. And [inaudible 13:11] remembers this because he was actually responsible for infrastructure…when people thought it would be a pipe dream to have a subway across the Toronto city border. Well, it was only inspiration and aspiration and some political will of course that made that happen. And so when you are looking at transit, people may have limiting beliefs when there are opportunities out there that you can in fact reach.

And how do we know that? Well, these standards exist and these best practices exist to tell you that there is something called the art of the possible within the city limits. That somewhere, somehow, some leader, some community has been able to achieve success in their city by implementing these best practices. So whether we are talking about cities and prosperity, whether we are talking about aging or whether we are talking about urban planning, there are international standards that can inspire communities to move forward and go higher.

So in the city of Vaughan, for example, Patricia McCarney actually made a presentation on the city of Vaughan and she compared this. We are part of this theme called [inaudible 14:24] model. It’s the study that we are doing to find out about regional economic spaces. So in my city of Vaughan when it came up to university it got a big 0 because we don’t have one. And the other issue was the hospital. Now, the hospital is coming in a few years. But now all of a sudden I have a council that sees with this challenge of bringing [inaudible 14:46] plus a post-secondary education into the city, because through this exercise we are learning so much more about our strengths and our weaknesses that we are strengthening our strengths, but we are also addressing some of the weaknesses that exist within the city. And I think this is a great contribution that this [inaudible 15:14] has been able to provide cities, not only here in Canada, but throughout the world as to how we can benefit from each other’s experience.

And so today we have a city like the city of Vaughan, with the lowest crime rate in Canada. We have led in economic and job creation growth last year with 6.3% and we are doing a lot of great things because through these standards we have done a self-analysis of what it is that we are really good at, what it is we are not very good at, and how we can improve this by doing best practices. So I think my five minutes are up.

Senator Art Eggleton

That’s great, terrific. Thanks. And now to give us some industry perspective is [inaudible 16:04], who is senior chief engineer at Smart City Project at [inaudible 16:08] Tokyo.

Michinaga Kohno

Good afternoon. I am from [inaudible 16:32] smart city area for about five years and we have seen that the perception of the Smart City is is for the industry and those [inaudible 16:46] changing. And here I have this definition of Smart Cities, and we find Smart City as a process or means to solve issues associated with the sustainable growth of the cities. So Smart City is not a goal by itself; Smart City is not a complete concept which can be given on the shelf. And then secondly the smartness of the cities is separated by the way issues are solved rather than the shape of a city, and the way it should be for a long period of time. I have had common but wrong questions from mayors in Japan that ëwhat can your smart city do for my city?’ It is not great question because Smart City is the means to solve the issues. So the mayors should have a clear idea of what kind of issues they have and how they should solve the issue.

There must be a kind of model for the smart city. Here there is this model of a kind of layout model of infrastructure. On the top there is [inaudible 18:18] about health care, and then the city infrastructure, which is above all the nation-wide infrastructure. So one of the keys to solve the issues of the cities is the integration of the different infrastructure, which we call city management infrastructure. And the [inaudible 18:46] for the city, the different infrastructure [inaudible 18:50] for mobility, located in the same geography. So some kind of an integration can be realized and also a specific example is in the station or traffic hub, there are different types of infrastructure to come together. And there are a variety of issues and this quickly shows the issues of the city. We are focusing on solving these issues from the systematic aspect of the infrastructure. I should mention that we are working on the [inaudible 19:45] ISO arena, and in our slide there is one subcommittee called Smart Committee Infrastructure, which Japanese guys are chairing and I am a member of this international organization.

Individual infrastructures like water, electricity, transportation have their own global standards. The recent trend is to see the city as a large-scale system, so that brought us to create a new standard to measure smartness of the infrastructure, not only for the individual infrastructure. So there is this one, and also there had been measurements or the indices like [inaudible 21:12] almost, the indicators are transparent in this. But now the smart cities or the cities have some direction such as [inaudible 21:33] or sustainability. And so as I mentioned earlier once the cities are regarded as a large-scale system, there must be an objective function for the direction of the moving of the city.

So as I mentioned at the beginning, the mayors, or the municipal officials, have some thoughts and wants, and the indicators for finalized measurement is useful in qualifying the thoughts and wants. Then the industry can solve the issues according to the indicators, because the thoughts and wants are some kind of social or human need. It is necessary to have tool to embed it into our technology. So these kinds of indicators, these standardized indicators are a useful tool for the communication between the municipality and industry in terms of quantifying the ingredients, results and then change or [inaudible 23:04] the quality of life for the residents. And then we can see the sensitivity analysis of the technology, including the standardized indicators, which will fit the needs or wants of the municipalities.

Thank you very much.

Senator Art Eggleton

Thank you very much. Okay, Patricia McCarney has given you the overview of the standardized indicators. [inaudible 23:36] has told you how it is useful from a planning standpoint. [inaudible 23:41] has talked about it from the municipal standpoint, the municipal government standpoint, and the [inaudible 23:46] industry standpoint. So now it’s open for questions and comments. You can direct your questions at a specific panel member or to all of them if you wish or make comment. This lady right over here.

Audience 1

I have a question…if we want to add a couple of slides, and it’s actually for you but I want to use the slide to answer, that shows the layers of the city from social and down…right there, stop. So are the indicators that are in the first 100 or so, the ISO standards, what level would you say they fit in that stack? Are they measuring at the city infrastructure level? Are they also social indicators that represent outcomes of citizens? I’m just curious where they fit in there.

Patricia McCarney

They are grouped into themes around city services and quality of life. So in fact the 100 are well spread across most of those categories. So we have some infrastructure, mobility, energy, safety, health…so in health for example there are number of hospital beds, the number of doctors, the number of nurses, emergency response. So under safety there are police, fire, etc…again, number of police officers, etc.

Audience 1

And are all of those indicators part of the standard or just the subset?

Patricia McCarney

Seventy-five of our indicators we took forward because there are 75 forward and there are also profile indicators…population statistics, age cohorts, gdp per capita…so those are profile indicators which are more statistics of the city, whereas indicators are more complex statistics [inaudible 25:43]. But the profile indicators are very important so that you can actually create your peer groups. So climate-type demography, density, spatial area of the city. You can group into peer groups according to those profile; but we do not send the profiles [inaudible 26:05]. So 75 orÖ I can sent you this.

Michinaga Kohno

[inaudible 26:18] ISO, as she mentioned, there are three individual, independent activities within one [inaudible 26:30], and our indicators cover everything, kind of. And they [inaudible 26:41] smart community infrastructure handles this city infrastructure, which is a physical infrastructure. And it is that improvement can be expected technologically. Technological improvement can affect for better city management. So Japanese [inaudible 27:17] structure, which can be kind of technological.

Audience 2

Thank you very much for all the presentation. This is [inaudible 27:29]. I am actually interested in the slide that said integration was the key to city management. I would like feedback that would spill into indicators that might involve the citizens and actually make them change. Is there any way…is it too early on to think about that? Or are some of you trying to incorporate some of those things that [inaudible 27:53]?

Nico Tillie

Well this was actually important to us in all the indicators because we didn’t have feedback [inaudible 28:03] in that aspect. We didn’t know why it was called that because we didn’t have any insight and all the data in city ranking. The city ranking, sure it was up-to-date and [inaudible 28:18]. So with this system you can just go around, pick [inaudible 28:30], and you see Rotterdam, Barcelona, Houston is a port city [inaudible] and compare. And then for our indicators, so it is tailor made, so to say. And if want to know more [inaudible 28:45]..BarcelonaÖ[inaudible] practice in there. So that is the indicator and feedback is very open, and it’s not [inaudible 28:47].

Audience 2

So [inaudible 29:02] associates can go online and get feedback and start to make choices.

Patricia McCarney

It helps the cities answer those rankings as well, because a lot of cities are being ranked by external parties that they don’t have the ability to answer. So in Toronto, fire response time was in press a few months ago, so now the Toronto City Manager’s office has got a fire response time relative to [inaudible 29:27] other cities in the world; Brisbane, Melbourne. And answer some of those ranking and those issues with standardized indicators. And it’s also free; we don’t charge anything.

Senator Art Eggleton

In the corner.

Audience 2

I’m interested in knowing more about your building block model. And this is a question I have for [inaudible 29:53] about how this is set up. Many of us are working in regional [contexts 0:30:00] and I am curious about the [models – 0:30:06] transportation, business problems, bylaws, across these boundaries [inaudible 30:16] was actually the regional unit as opposed to these political boundaries that were created for some reason at some time in the past. Is there a way to aggregate from the different cities and regions?

Mayor Maurizio Bevilacqua

We are actually doing that and I’ll let Patricia McCarney speak about it. We are doing an online [inaudible 30:41] the city of Vaughan actually, precisely for the reasons that you said. But at the end of the day we all know the emergence of the regional economies is the reality of life. So to [inaudible 30:57] for example and not take into consideration [inaudible 31:04] wouldn’t make sense. Patricia McCarney, go ahead.

Patricia McCarney

But we had to start the practice to get the standardized indicators, it’s the city administrative boundary, because if you try to do any comparisons worldwide those boundary issues really can be a problem. So right now we look up [the Mayor’s website 31:24] website, Tokyo is the largest city in the world. But if you look at the administrative boundary, it is not. We start at the administrator boundary but [inaudible 31:37] GTA.

Audience 3

Where I was going with this is the more effective it appears and part of it is peer groups. And something that peer groups [inaudible 31:48], right? [inaudible 31:53-32:10]

Patricia McCarney

Because we use the administrative boundary that city manager’s office, the performance manager group, is usually the reporter or the planner, etc., will not report on the neighboring boundaries. So [inaudible…0:32:30].

Speaker 6 a

[inaudible 32:36].

Patricia McCarney

And that’s the pilot. We had mathematically built the functionality now in our website so that cities can choose their peer group and they can draw their boundaries. So [inaudible 32:45] can draw theirs one way and [inaudible 32:47] can go over the top but Toronto can draw this Toronto Urban Region, which is between [23 32:52] municipal boundaries that we are integrating, to another peer group in greater Melbourne.

Mayor Maurizio Bevilacqua

If I can very quickly…the beauty of having peer groups as a following is that 20 years ago the population of the city of Vaughan was 100,000. Today it is [inaudible 33:06]. So what we do in preparing for the future for 10 or 15 years is we are going to be part of 500,000 and then we go into see cities and find out what can we predict is going to happen within our boundaries and what are the challenges going to be? And that’s why this peer group analysis is extremely important, as Patricia McCarney mentioned.

Audience 4

Part of this measuring [inaudible 33:34] performance, do you have examples of where your municipality improved based on looking at some of these [inaudible 33:42] and these comparisons and, say…yes we changed paths and now we are doing [inaudible 33:52]?

Nico Tillie

[inaudible 33:55] energy planning, so the cost of the problems with that. We seem to have [inaudible 34:01] per capita energy [inaudible] so we need help to see [inaudible]. For instance, we were looking at four cities but in fact this one provided [inaudible 34:19] information on that [inaudible] But the many cities [inaudible] examples from.

Audience 4

So you wanted to say you then saw an improvement in your city based on something you learned, saying now, this is the improvement…this is how we need to go?

Nico Tillie

[inaudible 34:43], which was one of the examples. [inaudible] whole package of this energy field [inaudible] the build environment [inaudible] San Francisco, Portland. [inaudible 35:05] These kinds of things which don’t find [inaudible], which you could find in cities. [inaudible]

Audience 5

As part of your ISO work, how did you do the collection of data, and the processes that you use to do that to ensure the data is accurate and collected accurately and represents a representative group?

Patricia McCarney

There is a process within the ISO once you get to the direct international standard and have it published. Then you can actually have it built in…there are so many acronyms, but it is a document that you can then move forward for audit and for accountability and a reference framework [inaudible 36:07].

Senator Art Eggleton

Okay, this gentleman here.

Audience 6

I do a fair amount of work on ranking cities and neighborhoods as well and I think one of the biggest challenges we face is that the last time we did this we ranked the most distressed neighborhoods in Canada using [sensor tracks – 0:36:26] did the best we could. The question that always comes up is that you have the most distressed neighborhood or the best neighborhood and so you have one and then you have 50 and then you have the 100 worst. So how do you come up with some kind of differentiating boundary for what all that means when you try to rank? How do you separate…we are talking about peers but we found that quite difficult to explain.

Nico Tillie

First we had the [inaudible 36:59] for the future and this is what to aim for. And then they say it is red or green. And then we don’t do anything actually. It is down to the stakeholders who are at the table because the stakeholders in those area decide will I take action over this or not? So it is not up to us. We can say if this is really bad because it is green or red and we can even [inaudible 37:30], of course that is possible. But if they are [inaudible 37:35] are no stakeholders at the table, we will deal with it in that moment but they pick it up later and they can use it later on, but it is really up to the stakeholders to pick it up. So it is really [inaudible 37:50]. But still the profile of the [inaudible 37:55] is still there. So you can still bring out [inaudible 38:00] and say, look, this is how good or bad it is. But it is up to the stakeholders if they pick it up or not. Probably there is an area with 20 red dots, but they pick only two or three. And I think it is also using energy in the city, the energy of the stakeholders, and people in the city, to actually do something with that. And that is something we want to facilitate.

Mayor Maurizio Bevilacqua

I think one of the points that needs to be made is that we are not strictly in the business of trying to rank you at the top or this at the bottom or whatever. We are trying to bring together comparative data that is going to help these cities.

Patricia McCarney

[inaudible 38:37] doesn’t do rankings. But having said that, the ISO process is starting to prompt us to say, ëHow do you set these categories’? It is very hard. You can use the database to drive it, so you can say, ëHere is pretty much 30%, 33%, 53%’, and you can do that just with the data, or you can sort them by peer group which is the luxurious database where you can actually see higher income countries or the cities that have a boundary of such-and-such category of square kilometers. You can actually start to create peer groups but they will be different for everyone. So if it is transit, you want spatial area density. If it is clean water, it will be by income, so our African cities will be a different peer group.

Audience 6

Well just to follow up in the case of [inaudible 39:27] we had some policy boundaries put up by the municipal government that ranked neighborhoods basically from the most to the least distressed. And so the new plan went into effect and they actually abolished it because there was a sense of if we show distress it would be…it was almost a policy direction just to get away from that. It may actually supported federal, provincial, municipal [inaudible 39:51] into them; the most distressed and the high-needs neighborhoods. Now, by eliminating that the city says we have no distressed neighborhoods. We have neighborhoods.

Patricia McCarney

So the cities need to benchmark against their own record as opposed to other cities to get started. That is what we find is our most diplomatic way.

Audience 6

I don’t know…I mean, we put a lot of effort into this and a lot of social [inaudible 40:19] so a lot of work on all the formulas to create new differentiations. And they were quite useful. All levels of government use them and it is just a policy shift. They thought that was a negative that we shouldn’t visualize that because it is all [inaudible 40:30].

Senator Art Eggleton

We’ve only got five more minutes…this lady here.

Audience 7

I think it is [inaudible 40:37] fantastic, the statistics and standards would be developed and collecting the information is available, but something you mentioned a few moments ago is as long as the stakeholders take them up, so there is sort of a gap that exists between. Now we have the collection of information data and these standards to be developed. These people actually have boots on the ground and are trying to make these decisions and there seems to be a lack of an educational component to make them aware that there is that information that they can go back to in order to manage their programs…is there any thought or plan within the development of the standards to also educate people on how to use them? We all know that it is measured and managed but it only gets managed if people know how to use what is being measured.

Patricia McCarney

From my point of view, where I sit, it is an issue. But I think from certain cities that we work with there is tremendous take up with the indicators. So in the case of Bogot·, for example, we have focal points in each of the 215 cities. So that focal point sat in the fiscal affairs department so the budget and tax. So that focal point had tremendous take up and all of those departments use the indicators because it [inaudible 42:00]. Sometimes the focal point will sit in the planning department and sometimes it is used in the city manager’s office, but the majority of our focal points sit in the city manager’s office because there is something to dedicated to performance management [inaudible 42:14].

How that then transmits outwards across to the planning department, to parks and recreation to transits [inaudible 42:26] Those are challenges. I think the ISO will have tremendous help in that because the weight of having an ISO standard by each city becomes almost like a needs building. You can actually have an [inaudible 42:46] for your city which will cause it to drift to other departments. This ISO standard, plus once we publish it we can start the process of introducing it to our cities [inaudible 42:50]. So I think that will help us, but yes it’s in an issue, in some cities it is more of an issue. [inaudible 43:10].

Mayor Maurizio Bevilacqua

For us the governance issue is very important to share the findings…for example, we are pretty much a consultation ring. So the report was saying this is where we are strong, this is where we are weak, what type of resources do we want to utilize toward either strengthening our weaknesses or retaining the strengths, and / or how do you bring community organizations to utilize those goals. So the role I think of the municipality or the government is also to be an enabler of change. And this information is in tune for a number of things. This is recent. This collection of data [inaudible 43:51] world, this didn’t exist, right? So we have all of these projects worldwide in these cities and we got a stack of information, and to tell you the truth it’s quite amazing that we have managed. This is like a sanctuary for me. The importance of it of course, the statistics and information; you have to mine it. You have to understand why this is important. And I think we can use these types of statistics quite well in application.

And going back to an original question you asked us how we benefit. We are in the middle of this…we call it the [inaudible 44:35] and cultural [inaudible]. It is another name for a [gaining complex – 0:44:40] in a city. But there we are with best practices in that area. This is how we have absorbed the knowledge of the experience of Melbourne, Australia, to benefit us. It is a downtown core of our city. Our city is only 300,000 people and in our downtown core, the building for Greenfield, it is going to basically welcome 35,000 people that will live or work there. So this is sort of the stats and how they can help us.

Senator Art Eggleton

We have run out of time and I just want to make one final comment and that is if any of you is interested in joining Global Indicators [Study 45:24] new standardized methodology for [inaudible 45:34] you can get [unsure] your municipality to do so… it’s free. They do have to provide on the basis of the standardized methodology but it is free to join. So thank you very much. Thank you to the panel.

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